An island state south of the China coast, formerly known as Formosa, about halfway between the Philippines to the south and Japan's archipelago of Okinawa to the north-east.
Originally part of China and still hotly contested between the Taiwanese "Republic of China" and the mainland "People's Republic of China". The island separated from China after WWII, during which the island had been under Japanese occupation, in the context of the Chinese Civil War, as communism under Mao took over in mainland China driving out the Nationalists. For that reason, Taiwan also enjoyed the support of the West during the Cold War – as a kind of beacon against Chinese (and Vietnamese etc.) communism.
The island of Formosa/Taiwan was the last retreat for the Nationalist Kuomintang and its leader Chiang Kai-shek. Here he became president of the newly declared Republic of China/Taiwan, with its capital in Taipei, in 1950. He served/ruled until 1972, at the helm of a largely dictatorial military one-party regime, which suppressed the local/indigenous people and culture. This repression was only relaxed years after Chiang's death, and especially since the late 1980s and early 1990s.
Back in the late 1940s as the Nationalist Chinese took over the island, Taiwan was gripped by violence, repression and ethnic/cultural tensions. A particular incident from that period is commemorated in the 2-28 Memorial Museum in the capital Taipei, which is why the country gets a mention on this website.
Of course, Taiwan also makes great efforts to market itself as a mainstream tourist destination (as well as an economic powerhouse), which means travelling to the island isn't difficult. For most, it will mean flying into the capital Taipei.   

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